Author Topic: Hades according to a first century Jewish priest  (Read 1244 times)

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Hades according to a first century Jewish priest
« on: December 14, 2011, 03:04:02 PM »
An Extract Out Of Josephus's Discourse To The Greeks Concerning Hades

1. NOW as to Hades, wherein the souls of the of the good things they see, and rejoice in the righteous and
unrighteous are detained, it is necessary to speak of it. Hades is a place in the world not regularly finished; a
subterraneous region, wherein the light of this world does not shine; from which circumstance, that in this region the
light does not shine, it cannot be but there must be in it perpetual darkness. This region is allotted as a place of
custody for souls, ill which angels are appointed as guardians to them, who distribute to them temporary
punishments, agreeable to every one's behavior and manners.

2. In this region there is a certain place set apart, as a lake of unquenchable fire, whereinto we suppose no one hath
hitherto been cast; but it is prepared for a day afore-determined by God, in which one righteous sentence shall
deservedly be passed upon all men; when the unjust, and those that have been disobedient to God, and have given
honor to such idols as have been the vain operations of the hands of men as to God himself, shall be adjudged to
this everlasting punishment, as having been the causes of defilement; while the just shall obtain an incorruptible and never-fading kingdom. These are now indeed confined in Hades, but not in the same place wherein the unjust are confined.

3. For there is one descent into this region, at whose gate we believe there stands an archangel with an host; which
gate when those pass through that are conducted down by the angels appointed over souls, they do not go the same
way; but the just are guided to the right hand, and are led with hymns, sung by the angels appointed over that place,
unto a region of light, in which the just have dwelt from the beginning of the world; not constrained by necessity, but
ever enjoying the prospect of the good things they see, and rejoic in the expectation of those new enjoyments which
will be peculiar to every one of them, and esteeming those things beyond what we have here; with whom there is no
place of toil, no burning heat, no piercing cold, nor are any briers there; but the countenance of the and of the just,
which they see, always smiles them, while they wait for that rest and eternal new life in heaven, which is to succeed
this region. This place we call The Bosom of Abraham.

4. But as to the unjust, they are dragged by force to the left hand by the angels allotted for punishment, no longer
going with a good-will, but as prisoners driven by violence; to whom are sent the angels appointed over them to
reproach them and threaten them with their terrible looks, and to thrust them still downwards. Now those angels
that are set over these souls drag them into the neighborhood of hell itself; who, when they are hard by it,
continually hear the noise of it, and do not stand clear of the hot vapor itself; but when they have a near view of this
spectacle, as of a terrible and exceeding great prospect of fire, they are struck with a fearful expectation of a future
judgment, and in effect punished thereby: and not only so, but where they see the place [or choir] of the fathers and
of the just, even hereby are they punished; for a chaos deep and large is fixed between them; insomuch that a just
man that hath compassion upon them cannot be admitted, nor can one that is unjust, if he were bold enough to
attempt it, pass over it.

5. This is the discourse concerning Hades, wherein the souls of all men are confined until a proper season, which
God hath determined, when he will make a resurrection of all men from the dead, not procuring a transmigration of
souls from one body to another, but raising again those very bodies, which you Greeks, seeing to be dissolved, do
not believe [their resurrection]. But learn not to disbelieve it; for while you believe that the soul is created, and yet
is made immortal by God, according to the doctrine of Plato, and this in time, be not incredulous; but believe that
God is able, when he hath raised to life that body which was made as a compound of the same elements, to make it
immortal; for it must never be said of God, that he is able to do some things, and unable to do others. We have
therefore believed that the body will be raised again; for although it be dissolved, it is not perished; for the earth
receives its remains, and preserves them; and while they are like seed, and are mixed among the more fruitful soil,
they flourish, and what is sown is indeed sown bare grain, but at the mighty sound of God the Creator, it will sprout
up, and be raised in a clothed and glorious condition, though not before it has been dissolved, and mixed [with the
earth]. So that we have not rashly believed the resurrection of the body; for although it be dissolved for a time on
account of the original transgression, it exists still, and is cast into the earth as into a potter's furnace, in order to
be formed again, not in order to rise again such as it was before, but in a state of purity, and so as never to he
destroyed any more. And to every body shall its own soul be restored. And when it hath clothed itself with that body, it will not be subject to misery, but, being itself pure, it will continue with its pure body, and rejoice with it, with which it having walked righteously now in this world, and never having had it as a snare, it will receive it again with great gladness. But as for the unjust, they will receive their bodies not changed, not freed from diseases or
distempers, nor made glorious, but with the same diseases wherein they died; and such as they were in their
unbelief, the same shall they be when they shall be faithfully judged.

6. For all men, the just as well as the unjust, shall be brought before God the word: for to him hath the Father
committed all judgment : and he, in order to fulfill the will of his Father, shall come as Judge, whom we call Christ. For Minos and Rhadamanthus are not the judges, as you Greeks do suppose, but he whom God and the Father hath glorified: CONCERNING WHOM WE HAVE ELSEWHERE GIVEN A MORE PARTICULAR ACCOUNT, FOR THE SAKE OF THOSE WHO SEEK AFTER TRUTH. This person, exercising the righteous judgment of the
Father towards all men, hath prepared a just sentence for every one, according to his works; at whose
judgment-seat when all men, and angels, and demons shall stand, they will send forth one voice, and say, JUST IS
THY JUDGMENT; the rejoinder to which will bring a just sentence upon both parties, by giving justly to those that
have done well an everlasting fruition; but allotting to the lovers of wicked works eternal punishment. To these
belong the unquenchable fire, and that without end, and a certain fiery worm, never dying, and not destroying the
body, but continuing its eruption out of the body with never-ceasing grief: neither will sleep give ease to these men,
nor will the night afford them comfort; death will not free them from their punishment, nor will the interceding
prayers of their kindred profit them; for the just are no longer seen by them, nor are they thought worthy of
remembrance. But the just shall remember only their righteous actions, whereby they have attained the heavenly
kingdom, in which there is no sleep, no sorrow, no corruption, no care, no night, no day measured by time, no sun
driven in his course along the circle of heaven by necessity, and measuring out the bounds and conversions of the
seasons, for the better illumination of the life of men; no moon decreasing and increasing, or introducing a variety
of seasons, nor will she then moisten the earth; no burning sun, no Bear turning round [the pole], no Orion to rise,
no wandering of innumerable stars. The earth will not then be difficult to be passed over, nor will it he hard to find
out the court of paradise, nor will there be any fearful roaring of the sea, forbidding the passengers to walk on it;
even that will be made easily passable to the just, though it will not be void of moisture. Heaven will not then be
uninhabitable by men, and it will not be impossible to discover the way of ascending thither. The earth will not be
uncultivated, nor require too much labor of men, but will bring forth its fruits of its own accord, and will be well
adorned with them. There will be no more generations of wild beasts, nor will the substance of the rest of the
animals shoot out any more; for it will not produce men, but the number of the righteous will continue, and never
fail, together with righteous angels, and spirits [of God], and with his word, as a choir of righteous men and women
that never grow old, and continue in an incorruptible state, singing hymns to God, who hath advanced them to that
happiness, by the means of a regular institution of life; with whom the whole creation also will lift up a perpetual
hymn from corruption, to incorruption, as glorified by a splendid and pure spirit. It will not then be restrained by a
bond of necessity, but with a lively freedom shall offer up a voluntary hymn, and shall praise him that made them,
together with the angels, and spirits, and men now freed from all bondage.

7. And now, if you Gentiles will be persuaded by these motives, and leave your vain imaginations about your
pedigrees, and gaining of riches, and philosophy, and will not spend your time about subtleties of words, and
thereby lead your minds into error, and if you will apply your ears to the hearing of the inspired prophets, the
interpreters both of God and of his word, and will believe in God, you shall both be partakers of these things, and
obtain the good things that are to come; you shall see the ascent unto the immense heaven plainly, and that
kingdom which is there. For what God hath now concealed in silence [will be then made manifest,] what neither eye
hath seen, nor ear hath heard, nor hath it entered into the heart of man, the things that God hath prepared for them that love him.

8. In whatsoever ways I shall find you, in them shall I judge you entirely: so cries the END of all things. And he who
hath at first lived a virtuous lift, but towards the latter end falls into vice, these labors by him before endured shall
be altogether vain and unprofitable, even as in a play, brought to an ill catastrophe. Whosoever shall have lived
wickedly and luxuriously may repent; however, there will be need of much time to conquer an evil habit, and even
after repentance his whole life must be guarded with great care and diligence, after the manner of a body, which,
after it hath been a long time afflicted with a distemper, requires a stricter diet and method of living; for though it
may be possible, perhaps, to break off the chain of our irregular affections at once, yet our amendment cannot be
secured without the grace of God, the prayers of good men, the help of the brethren, and our own sincere
repentance and constant care. It is a good thing not to sin at all; it is also good, having sinned, to repent; as it is
best to have health always, but it is a good thing to recover from a distemper. To God be glory and dominion for ever and ever Amen.
1 Timothy 2:3-4  ...God our Savior;  Who will have all men to be saved...
John 12:47  And if any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world.
Romans 4:5 But to the one who does not work, but believes in the one who declares the ungodly righteous ...